Which of the following is a cell-wall deficient bacterium?

  • The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;
  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  5. In order to overcome bacterial resistant on the previous question, we should; (more than one answer may apply)
  6. Use a combination of Penicillin plus clavulanic acid
  7. Give alternative medications like; cephalosporins, or aminoglycosides
  8. Wait until the patient’s immune system kills the pathogen
  9. Treat for the symptoms only
  • The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;
  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  • The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;
  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  • The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;
  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Decreasing drug permeability
  4. Production of efflux pumps

  1. Bacterial resistance could be acquired by the transfer of plasmid during sexual reproduction or from one bacterial cell to another living in the same vicinity;
  2. True
  3. False
  • The following figure represents a resistance mechanism to antibacterial treatment. Which of the following best describes this resistance mechanism;
  1. Production of different binding sites
  2. Production of degrading enzyme
  3. Finding an alternative metabolic pathway
  4. Production of efflux pumps
  5. A type of cell receptors function in recognition of self by the individual’s immune system and is critical in blood transfusions or organ transplants;
  6. MHC I
  7. MHC II
  8. MHC IX
  9. None of the above
  10. A type of cell receptors function in detecting foreign molecules and initiating an immune response;
  11. MHC I
  12. MHC II
  13. MHC IX
  14. HLA
  15. Undifferentiated lymphocytes exist in;
  16. Thymus gland
  17. Bone marrow
  18. Lymph nodes
  19. The liver
  20. Lymphocytes differentiate to T and B lymphocytes at;
  21. Trachea and Brain
  22. Tonsils and blood
  23. Thymus and Bone marrow
  24. Liver and heart
  25. What type of immune cell first detects and processes antigens and foreign molecules;
  26. Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
  27. T lymphocytes
  28. B lymphocytes
  29. None of the above
  30. A molecule that initiates an immune response with an active site for immune cell recognition is known as;
  31. Immune misleader
  32. Epitope
  33. Immunoglobulin
  34. Hapten
  35. Antigen binding sites on immunoglobulins are located on the heavy chain only;
  36. True
  37. False
  38. Memory cells are undifferentiated B lymphocytes;
  39. True
  40. False
  1. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is composed of five subunits (pentamer) linked together by J-chains;
  2. IgA
  3. IgG
  4. IgE
  5. IgM
  6. A person with a hypersensitivity reaction. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes should be found elevated on the patient’s blood;
  7. IgA
  8. IgG
  9. IgE
  10. IgM
  11. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is produced later in infections;
  12. IgA
  13. IgG
  14. IgE
  15. IgM
  16. Immunoglobulins’ functions is to recognize, immobilize and neutralize antigens;
  17. True
  18. False
  19. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is secreted at mucus membranes (salivary glands, intestine, nasal membrane, genitourinary tract…etc)
  20. IgA
  21. IgG
  22. IgE
  23. IgM
  24. Which of the following immunoglobulin classes is associated with basophiles and mast cells in blood;
  25. IgA
  26. IgG
  27. IgE
  28. IgM
  29. IgD immunoglobulins’ main function is triggering B cell activation.
  30. True
  31. False
  32. In order to overcome bacterial resistant to penicillin, we should; (more than one answer may apply)
  33. Use a combination of Penicillin plus clavulanic acid
  34. Give alternative medications like; cephalosporins, or aminoglycosides
  35. Wait until the patient’s immune system kills the pathogen
  36. Treat for the symptoms only
  1. Which of the following organisms produce the Panton-Valentine leucocidin;
  2. coli
  3. MRSA
  4. Vibrio cholera
  5. diff
  6. The word “mycosis” refers to;
  7. Bacterial infection
  8. Viral infections
  9. Fungal infection
  10. Parasitic infection
  11. Which of the following is a cell-wall deficient bacterium;
  12. Staphylococcus aureus
  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  14. Heamophilus influenza
  15. coli
  16. Which of the following pathogens causes gastritis and gastric ulcer
  17. coli
  18. pylori
  19. typhi
  20. faecium
  21. A characteristic diarrhea that exhibits rice-water consistency and color is a typical symptom of ………………………….. infection.
  22. coli
  23. typhi
  24. Shigella
  25. Vibrio cholera
  26. Viral infection characterized by projectile vomiting and is world wide spread
  27. aureus
  28. Norovirus
  29. Herpesvirus
  30. Campylobacter
  31. Which of the following is a spirochete that is transmitted through intercourse;
  32. Borrelia burgdorferi
  33. Treponema pallidum
  34. Neisseria gonorrhea
  35. Chlamydia sp.
  36. Which of the following sexually transmitted bacteria causes ophthalmia neonatorum;
  37. Papillomavirus
  38. HSV-2
  39. Neisseria gonorrhea
  40. Chlamydia sp.
  41. Clostridium tetani causes ………………………… paralysis
  42. Spastic
  43. Flaccid
  44. Degenerative
  45. Trigeminal
  46. Clostridium botulinum causes ……………………… paralysis
  47. Spastic
  48. Flaccid
  49. Degenerative
  50. Trigeminal
  51. Trichomonas vaginalis is a ……………………….. that causes vaginitis
  52. Virus
  53. Bacteria
  54. Fungi
  55. Parasite
  56. ……………………….. is a virus transmitted sexually and is associated with cervical cancer.
  57. HSV-2
  58. HIV
  59. HPV
  60. HSV-1
  61. The harmful effect of Salmonella and Shigella infections is primarily due to;
  62. Consumption of nutrients in GIT
  63. Production of toxins by these bacteria
  64. Immune reaction against the bacteria
  65. Inhibition of absorption
  66. Streptococcus species are classified based on ability to digest blood cells.
  67. True
  68. False
  69. Aspergillus is a ………………………. that causes sinusitis or ear infections
  70. Bacteria
  71. Fungi
  72. Parasite
  73. Virus
  74. Which of the following E. coli strains is characterized by severe hemorrhage
  75. Enteropathogenic
  76. Enterotoxogenic
  77. Enterohemorrhagic
  78. O157:H7
  79. Bacillus anthracis may cause; skin, lung and GIT infections depending on route of transmission
  80. True
  81. False

Assay questions

  1. Based on your search, briefly describe differences between gram positive and gram negative bacterial cell walls.
  2. What are cytokines and chemokines and what is their role in immune responses.
  3. Based on your search, briefly describe type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.

Define the term “Satellite viruses” and give two examples of satellite viruses.

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