What were the major commercial centers in the Afro-Eurasian world? How did they foster  commercial exchange and establish a new commercial class?2. Compare the Muslim societies that emerged in Mali and India with the traditional Muslimsocieties in Baghdad and Cairo. In what ways were these societies similar and different?

1. What were the major commercial centers in the Afro-Eurasian world? How did they foster  commercial exchange and establish a new commercial class?2. Compare the Muslim societies that emerged in Mali and India with the traditional Muslim societies in Baghdad and Cairo. In what ways were these societies similar and different? How diddifferent political and social contexts affect the forms of Islam practiced by local rulers?3. Compare how Islam and Christianity became more popular religions between 1000 and 1300 CE.What similarities exist in how they became more established among the mass of thepopulations?(***)4. Compare how the Delhi sultanate and the Song dynasty established their authority andmanaged both their internal and external affairs. What similar methods did they use to securetheir authority?5. How did the Mongol dynasties establish themselves by different methods in China andBaghdad? How did the Mongol raids affect commercial networks across Eurasia?6. What types of issues did the new Islamic dynasties of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries face?What similarities and differences exist in how they responded to those issues to establish stableregimes?7. How did the Black Death affect different regions of Eurasia and their political development? Inwhat ways can the Black Death be seen as having a mixed legacy? (***)8. Compare the Chinese and Portuguese experiences with maritime exploration. How were theirefforts similar or different, and what were the long-run effects? (***)9. Compare the importance of bureaucratic structures to the growth of the Ming and Ottomandynasties. How did each support the strength of the ruling family?10. Explain the basic tenets of the European Renaissance. How did they challenge the political andreligious assumptions of the region? (***)11. Compare and contrast global trading networks in the year 1600 with networks in the year 1450.What was consistent, and what changed? What factor or factors contributed to the majorchanges identified?12. Compare and contrast the influence of Europeans on the Ming Empire during the sixteenthcentury with their influence on the Aztec Empire. Why did the European impact on these twoempires differ so dramatically? (***)13. Analyze how Mughal and European rulers responded to religious diversity in their realms. Howdid each seek to resolve the problems posed by religious pluralism? What were theconsequences of each type of response? (***)14. Evaluate the impact of silver from the Americas on other parts of the world. How did it affecttrade, governance, and international relationships in Europe and Asia, and why?15. What were the differences between the tributary model of empire developed by the Spanish inthe Americas and the plantation complex developed by the Portuguese? Define each of theseterms, explain how each system worked, and consider what circumstances influenced each todevelop as it did.16. Compare the establishment of the Qing dynasty in China with the establishment of theTokugawa Shogunate in Japan. How did each group assert its legitimacy? How did each respondto the challenges of global economic integration?(***)17. Describe the colonial empires that emerged in North America and the Caribbean between 1600and 1750. How did the specific environmental settings and resources of a colony shape itsdevelopment? What other factors influenced colonial development, and how?18. Compare and contrast the evolution of the English state and its policies with the evolution of theRussian state and its policies during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. How were theysimilar and how did they differ, and why?19. Compare and contrast the impact of global economic integration on the Ottoman Empire withits impact on the Mughal Empire. How did each dynasty respond to external economic inputs,and how important were they for the evolution of each empire?20. Analyze the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on African societies between 1600 and 1750. Inthe aggregate, which social groups benefited, and which did not? How did participation in theslave trade contribute to the formation of states, and what were its pitfalls?(***)21. What is meant by the term Enlightenment when used to describe a historical period? Analyzehow the Enlightenment was defined both in terms of ideas and in terms of social practices, andexplain the context from which those ideas and practices emerged.(***)22. How was Captain Cook a symbol of his age? Describe the worldview he represented and analyzehow it contributed to the impact he, and other explorers, had on the societies theyencountered.(***)23. Compare the points of view expressed in Chinese, European, and Islamic ideas aboutcartography (mapmaking) between 1500 and 1780. How did they reflect the broaderperspectives of their societies?24. Compare the cultural traditions that developed in Tokugawa Japan with those of Enlightenment era inWestern Europe. What were the characteristics of each cultural world? What influences ledeach to develop as it did?25. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, European thinkers developed new ideasabout how the world’s people could be classified. Describe their new system and explain how itworked, and compare it with the classificatory systems used in China.(***)26. Although the revolutions that took place in the late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-centuryAtlantic world shared the ideals of liberty and equality, they were defined in a variety of ways.How did the American, French, Haitian, and Spanish American revolutions understand theseconcepts, and why? How did each revolution’s ideas about liberty and equality influence thesocial order that emerged afterward?(***)27. During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, economic and political developmentscentered in western Europe required responses in other parts of the world. Compare howRussia, China, and West Africa were affected by changes originating in western Europe, and whyeach region responded as it did.28. Compare the impact of the industrial revolution in China and Great Britain. How similar were thetwo regions? Why did Great Britain move toward industrialization while China did not?(***)29. Analyze the impact of industrialization in northeastern Europe between 1750 and 1850. Whatfactors encouraged this transformation, and how was society transformed?(***)30. Compare the responses of the Ottoman sultans and the Egyptians to the growing Europeanpresence in the Ottoman world during the nineteenth century. Why did each group respond asit did, and what tactics did each pursue? How successful were they?

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