Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods Sample Essay

Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods: The Stone Age was divided into three periods. The old stone age is known as Paleolithic; middle stone age also referred to as Mesolithic and the New Stone Age, Neolithic…

Paleolithic and Neolithic Periods
The Stone Age was divided into three periods. The old stone age is known as Paleolithic; middle stone age also referred to as Mesolithic and the New Stone Age, Neolithic. The early humans made use of tools during this era, and there was an eventual transformation from hunting and gathering culture to food production and farming. In this era, the early humans shared the planet with several now-extinct hominin relatives such as Denisovans and Neanderthals.
The Paleolithic period can be traced to be around 2.5 million years ago. The early man in this period lived in simple tepees or huts or caves and were hunters and gatherers. They used bone tools, basic stone, and crude stone axes for hunting wild animals and birds. They would cook using a controlled fire and collect fruits, nuts, berries, and go fishing (Kennedy, 2019). Moreover, cave art can be traced to this era. They could use ochres, minerals, charcoal with water, tree saps, animal fats, blood to aid etching animals, humans, and signs. They would carve small figurines from bones, antlers, clay, and stones. During the Neolithic era, the ancient humans moved from being hunters and gathering to food production and agriculture. They also cultivated cereals and domesticated some animals. They used polished adzes, hand axes for tiling and plowing land and settling in plains. They made advancements in tools and home construction, farming, art such as sewing, weaving, and pottery.
The Paleolithic and Neolithic era’s transition was instigated by the quest to make life easier, resulting in intellectual advances. The ancient man identified some new ways of living, for instance, when they lived a nomadic lifestyle, and their life mostly depended on climate and environment (Kennedy, 2019). Some of the Neolithic stage’s critical changes include discovering animal husbandry and agriculture. Some of the factors contributing to this transition include lifestyle where they moved from being nomads to a sedentary lifestyle where they formed permanent settlements. Furthermore, agriculture facilitated the transition from hunters and gatherers to growing crops and making better farm tools from polished stones. Besides, man also made advancements in language and methods of controlling fire. Also, they invented weaving, pottery, and writing. It is also believed that the wheel was invented in the Neolithic period together with time-keeping and calendars. This changes led to the rise of early civilizations.
Civilizations grew as a result of Neolithic Revolution innovations. Many modern civilization facets can be traced to this period when man began to live in communities. The intellectual advancement in humans led to these settlements that changed their lifestyle completely. It led to permanent homes and agricultural practices rather than relying on wild food. More inventions in agriculture were made, which could have led to the Iron and Bronze Age’s ensuing, where more tools for farming resulted in art and war that brought civilization through conquest and trade.

The key features of civilization are complex institutions, advanced technology, advanced cities, record keeping, and specialized workers. They define civilization since they bring about the complexity of culture and society. According to Allen (2018), progressive societies gave birth to the first forms of civilization where complex institutions were established to maintain order and establish peace. Advanced technology was essential for developing new techniques and tools for solving society’s problems. Moreover, record-keeping would be essential for governance systems to document the passage of various laws, tax collections or grain storage, and specialized workers due to surplus foodstuff production; others had to specialize in other fields such as artisans’ hence developing trade.

Allen, B. (2018). Knowledge and civilization. Routledge.
Diffen. (n.d.). Neolithic vs. paleolithic – Difference and comparison | Diffen. Diffen – Compare Anything. Diffen. Discern. Decide. Editors. (2018, January 12). Neolithic Revolution. HISTORY.
Kennedy, L. (2019, September 27). The prehistoric ages: How humans lived before written records. HISTORY.,and%20gather

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